Know Your Skin Type and It's Care Routine
You may have heard about different skin types but do you know what is your skin type, and what is the right skincare routine to keep your skin glowing and healthy?
The outermost layer of skin provides a waterproof barrier and creates our skin tone.
The epidermis produces keratin (protects against harmful substances and controls water released from the body). It also produces melanin which gives the skin color.(1)
Beneath the epidermis contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands.
The dermis is also composed of matrix components such as collagen (which provides strength) and elastin (which provides elasticity) (1)
The deeper subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is made of fat and connective tissue.(1)
There are different skin types: normal skin, combination skin, oily skin, dry skin, and sensitive skin.
There are different skin types: normal skin, combination skin, oily skin, dry skin, and sensitive skin.
Normal Skin Type
Not too dry and not too oily, normal skin has:(2)
- No or few imperfections
- No severe sensitivity
- Barely visible pores
- A radiant complexion
Combination Skin Type(2)
Your skin can be dry or normal in some areas and oily in others, such as the T-zone (nose, forehead, and chin). Many people have this type. It may need slightly different care in different areas. (2)
Combination skin can have:
- Pores that look larger than normal because they’re more open
- Shiny skin
Dry Skin Type (2)
You may have:
- Almost invisible pores
- Dull, rough complexion
- Red patches
- Less elastic skin
- More visible lines
Your skin can crack, peel, or become itchy, irritated, or inflamed. If it’s very dry, it can become rough and scaly, especially on the backs of your hands, arms, and legs.(2)
Dry skin may be caused or made worse by:
- Your genes
- Aging or hormonal changes
- Weather such as wind, sun, or cold
- Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from tanning beds
- Indoor heating
- Long, hot baths and showers
- Ingredients in soaps, cosmetics, or cleansers
These tips can help alleviate dry skin:
- Take shorter showers and baths, not more than once daily.
- Use mild, gentle soaps or cleansers. Avoid deodorant soaps.
- Don’t scrub while bathing or drying.
- Smooth on a rich moisturizer right after bathing. Ointments and creams may work better than lotions for dry skin but are often messier. Reapply as needed throughout the day.
- Use a humidifier, and don’t let indoor temperatures get too hot.
- Wear gloves when using cleaning agents, solvents, or household detergents.
Oily Skin Type
You may have:
- Enlarged pores
- Dull or shiny, thick complexion
- Blackheads, pimples, or other blemishes(3)
Oiliness can change depending on the time of the year or the weather. Things that can cause or worsen it include:
- Puberty or other hormonal imbalances
- Heat or too much humidity
Taking care of oily skin:(3)
- Wash it no more than twice a day, and after you sweat a lot.
- Use a gentle cleanser and don’t scrub.
- Don’t pick, pop, or squeeze pimples. They’ll take longer to heal.
- Look for the word “non-comedogenic” on skincare products and cosmetics. This means it won’t clog pores.
Sensitive Skin Type
It can show up as:
If your skin is sensitive, try to find out what your triggers are so you can avoid them. There are many possible reasons, but often it’s in response to particular skin care products. (2)
So after you know what your skin type is, now you should learn how to take care of your skin.
For Oily skin:
Most people should be washing their face morning and night, it’s especially important for those with oily skin to give their face a complete cleanse in the morning. Even though you might feel like your skin is still clean from the night before, during the night your skin is busy shedding skin cells and producing oils. (4)
That’s why washing with a good exfoliating cleanser, both in the morning and evening, is recommended.
You should use a cleanser or wash it with salicylic acid.
This is going to really help clear away excess oil and dead skin to prevent buildup in the pores. (4)
You can buy Cetaphil – Oily Skin Cleanser online from here:
Step 2: Toner
Once your skin is clean and free from any makeup, dirt, and oil, you follow with an exfoliating toner that contains either:(4)
you can buy Vichy Normaderm Purifying Astringent Lotion Toner online from here:
Step 3: Treat your skin
This step will depend on your specific skin concerns. But in general, if you’re prone to acne, you should be using benzoyl peroxide or sulfur in the daytime to help curb oil production and prevent breakouts.
In the evening, it recommended a retinol product to help keep pores clear and skin glowing.
Like: BP Lotion, Sulfur Lotion, and Retinol Serum.
Other popular over-the-counter retinol products include La Roche Posay Retinol B3 Pure Retinol Serum, Rexsol Retinol.
You can buy Rexsol Retinol + C Cream online from:
You can buy La Roche Posay Retinol B3 Pure Retinol Serum online from:
One quick note for people with oily skin: People with oily skin that they’re actually lucky.
If you have more oils in your skin, you’re likely to ward off wrinkles and fine lines for a bit longer than someone with dry skin.(4)
Step 4: Moisturize
Moisturizing is a very important step if you have oily skin.
There is some belief that if you have oily skin, you don’t need to or shouldn’t moisturize,” But this couldn’t be further from the truth.
All skin types need moisturizers, but if you have oily skin, you should be more careful with what kind of moisturizer you’re using.
Look for a moisturizer that’s:
- Free of oils
Any moisturizer that’s formulated for acne-prone skin should meet these criteria.(4)
You can buy La Roche-Posay Effaclar Mat online from here:
Developing a daily skincare routine that works for you is the first step toward managing oily skin.
Once you’ve made this a habit, you may want to consider incorporating other, less frequent steps into your routine, like those outlined below.
Use blotting papers
If your skin seems to shine all day long, the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) recommends using blotting papers to control excess oil.(3)
To do this, gently press the paper against your skin for a few seconds. This should help absorb most of the oil. Repeat throughout the day as needed.
Wash after exercise
In addition to your morning and evening routine, the AAD recommends washing your face after you exercise. This is especially important if you don’t plan on showering soon.
Washing your face will help remove sweat, oil, and dirt that may build up while you’re exercising.
This doesn’t have to be an elaborate four-step process. Simply wash your face with your regular cleanser and apply a light layer of moisturizer.
The sooner you can do this after exercise, the better.
Choose products wisely
When it comes to purchasing skincare products, you should choose wisely.
Avoid any products with alcohol, which can cause a paradoxically increased amount of oil secretion. Also, avoid anything thick or greasy, like cocoa butter, butter, and Vaseline. (3)
Step 5: Sunscreen
When outdoors, be sure to wear sunscreen that’s at least SPF 30.
Use sunscreen that contains either titanium dioxide or zinc oxide. These ingredients can help prevent acne breakouts. (5,6)
You should wear sunscreen every day, regardless of the weather or season, to protect your skin from the sun’s harsh rays. This is even true when you’re indoors when ultraviolet A (UVA) rays can filter in through the windows. (5)
You can help treat oily skin by (3)
- Washing your face with a gel cleanser twice a day, especially after exercise
- Using a toner to help absorb any leftover sebum and remove dead skin cells
- Applying a retinoid-based serum or benzoyl peroxide spot treatment, especially if you have regular acne breakouts
- Following up with a moisturizer, or any one of the dual moisturizers on this list
- Gently blotting your skin throughout the day to absorb excess oil
- Make sure all your cosmetics are labeled oil-free and non-comedogenic
- Asking a doctor about medications, such as isotretinoin or oral contraceptives if you have severe acne
You can buy La Roche Posay Anthelios Shaka Fluid SPF-50+ online from:
For Dry Skin:
Step 1: Cleanser
Your first step is to choose a hydrating cleanser. You want a cleanser to remove dirt and oil without causing a disruption to the outer skin layer.(7)
A good ingredient to look for is hyaluronic acid, as in Cetaphil’s Gentle Skin Cleanser
You can buy Cetaphil’s Gentle Skin Cleanser online from here:
Step 2: Toner
Many toners use alcohol as the main ingredient, which dries out the skin. Look for an alcohol-free toner with active ingredients that restore the pH levels of your skin(7)
You can buy Cetaphil Bright Healthy Radiance Refresh Toner online from here:
Step 3: Target
This step helps to target specific skin concerns. Focus on hydration with a pure hyaluronic acid serum such as Esthederm Intensive Hyaluronic Cream
You can buy Esthederm Intensive Hyaluronic Cream online from here:
Step 4: Moisturize
A good moisturizer will lock in the benefits of a serum. Use a moisturizer daily that’s specifically designed for the face.
Facial moisturizer needs to be really nourishing and hydrating but avoid products that might clog your pores. It’s a safe bet to look for “non-comedogenic” on the label.(7)
You can buy Bioderma Atoderm Cream online from here:
Step 5: Protect
Daily sunscreen use prevents harmful UV rays from damaging the skin.
It recommends wearing sunscreen to protect your skin from harsh UV rays regardless of your skin type.(7)
you can buy Bioderma Photoderm Max SPF-100 Cream online from:
There are plenty of natural remedies for dry skin, and some work great for the face.
Coconut oil is an emollient that can be used on sensitive areas, like the under-eyes, and around the mouth.
Oatmeal is another soothing ingredient that can help relieve redness and itching.
Increasing your intake of omega-3s is another great way to combat dryness. Try adding flaxseeds, salmon, and walnuts to your diet.
Best skincare routine for dry skin on the body(6)
A skincare routine for your body will be similar to your face routine. The main difference is the products you’ll use for each.
The first step is cleansing. Choose a product that includes hydrating ingredients like Ego QV Intensive Moisturizing Cleanser
You can buy Ego QV Intensive Moisturizing Cleanser online from here:
Then move on to moisture, ideally applying while the skin is still damp.
Look for creams and ointments that include one or more of the following:
- Jojoba oil
- Hyaluronic acid
- shea butter
What not to do if you have dry skin(8)
- Don’t overdo the caffeine
Try not to overdo the caffeine intake. Too much caffeine and not enough water will dry you out in a heartbeat.
- Go easy on the hot water
Hot showers or baths can strip the skin of natural oils. This can cause irritation, dryness, and sometimes even damage to the skin.
Instead of a steamy shower or bath, keep it just warm enough to soothe and relax without drying your skin out.
- Avoid harsh products
Some products may make dry skin worse, like:
- chemical peels
- harsh exfoliating products like retinoid
- glycolic acid
- benzoyl peroxide
- salicylic acid
For combination skin
It’s a combination of oily and dry skin that can appear in different ways and in different amounts.(2)
You’ll need to pay attention to figure out exactly how your combination presents itself.
Signs of oiliness may include:
- shiny skin
- larger-looking pores
Signs of dryness may include:
- feelings of tightness or roughness
Step 1: Cleanser
It’s important to remove any buildup that occurs overnight.
If you have acne, use a cleanser that contains salicylic acid and double-cleanse at night if you wear makeup.(9)
You can buy Bioderma Sebium Moussant Gel online from:
Step 2: Toner
Toner removes any oil that your cleanser didn’t and balances your skin’s pH levels. Make sure to grab an alcohol-free toner.
You can buy Bioderma Hydrabio H20 Micellar Water online from here:
Step 3: Serum
Serums, or treatments, hydrate and protect your skin. It’s best to opt for a serum with hyaluronic acid.(9)
You can buy Vichy, Mineral 89 online from:
Step 4: Moisturizer
With combination skin, you’ll want two moisturizers. For dry areas, choose a creamy formula. For oily parts, choose a lightweight, water-based formula.
You can buy Bioderma Sebium Hydra online from:
Step 5: Protect
Choose a lightweight formula with at least SPF 30.
Staying away from products that overlap (or do the same thing), like putting acids and retinoids on the skin together. This will make your skin go from combo to dry.
Some ingredients to consider:(9)
- Hyaluronic acid is ideal for your face, as it hydrates your skin without the greasiness that could aggravate oiliness.
- Salicylic acid may regulate oil production and help keep pores unclogged.
- Lactic acid acts as a mild exfoliant that removes dead skin cells from dry areas and gently clears pores.
- Antioxidants protect you from environmental damage. Make sure to choose a product with vitamin C for general skin health.
you can buy La Roche-Posay Anthelios Invisible Mist SPF-50 online from:
Now let’s talk about some infections and diseases that may affect your skin and how to treat it:
1- Acne vulgaris:
Acne vulgaris is a skin condition that occurs when hair follicles are blocked with dead skin cells, bacteria, and oil (sebum). The blocked follicles cause blemishes on the skin, including pimples, blackheads, whiteheads, and cysts. (1)
About 85% of teenagers are affected by acne, but it can occur in any age group with many cases persisting into adulthood.
Most acne occurs on the face, chest, back, and shoulders. Symptoms can be mild, moderate, or severe.
If you have mild acne, you will probably have an open comedo (blackhead).
If you have moderate acne, you’ll have closed comedo (whitehead) and papule.
Severe acnes include pustule and nodule/ cyst.
Acne is largely a hormonal condition that’s driven by androgen hormones, which typically become active during the teenage and young adult years. Sensitivity to these hormones — combined with surface bacteria on the skin and fatty acids within oil glands — can result in acne.
Certain things can cause acne and/or make it worse:(2)
- Fluctuating hormone levels around the time of a woman’s period.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
- Clothing and headgear, like hats and sports helmets.
- Air pollution and certain weather conditions, especially high humidity.
- Using oily or greasy personal care products (like heavy lotions, creams, or hair pomades and waxes) or working in an area where you routinely come in contact with grease (such as working at a restaurant where there are greasy food surfaces and frying oil).
- Stress, which increases the hormone cortisol, can also cause acne to flare.
- Oral contraceptives
- Some foods like wheat, milk, and coffee
Your healthcare provider may suggest some non-prescription medications for your condition. Depending on the condition’s severity, your age, the type of acne you have, and how effective the over-the-counter remedies have been, you may need stronger prescription medications.
1- Benzoyl peroxide: is available as an over-the-counter product (such as Akneroxidl®, Benzac AC®) as a leave-on gel or wash. It targets surface bacteria, which often aggravates acne. Lower concentrations and wash formulations are less irritating to your skin. Irritation (dryness) is a common side effect.
2-Salicylic acid is available over the counter for acne, as a cleanser or lotion. It helps remove the top layer of damaged skin. Salicylic acid dissolves dead skin cells to prevent your hair follicles from clogging. It works by easing inflammation and unclogging pores. It can be found in OTC brands like La Roche-Posay Effaclar Gel Facial Wash
You can buy La Roche-Posay Effaclar Gel Facial Wash online from:
3-Retinoids are available over the counter (e.g., La Roche Posay Retinol B3 Pure Retinol Serum, Rexsol Retinol + C Cream). They help to break up whiteheads and blackheads, as well as prevent blocked pores.
Most patients are candidates for retinoid therapy. These medications are not spotting treatments and must be used on the entire area of skin affected by acne to prevent the formation of new pimples. The most common side effect is irritation, which usually improves with moisturization and time on the medication.
You can buy Rexsol Retinol + C Cream online from:
You can buy La Roche Posay Retinol B3 Pure Retinol Serum online from:
4-Antibiotics (topical types include clindamycin and erythromycin) control surface bacteria that aggravate and often encourage the swelling of acne. Antibiotics are more effective when combined with benzoyl peroxide.
5-Isotretinoin (Curance®, Oratane®), an oral retinoid, is an especially effective drug used only for the most severe cases of acne. Isotretinoin shrinks the size of oil glands, which contributes to acne formation. The most common side effect is dryness but can also cause birth defects. Some evidence suggests a possible increased risk of ulcerative colitis and depression.
- High glycemic index diets may be associated with acne.
- A low glycemic load (LGL) diet had significant improvement in acne severity
- Certain dairy products may aggravate acne.
- Some studies have examined the role of antioxidants (including oral zinc), probiotics, and fish oil on acne
7- Chemical peels: is a technique used to improve the appearance of the skin
8- comodo removal: a dermatologist or cosmetologist may extract blackheads using gentle pressure around the pore opening and whiteheads by incision with a large needle or a blade.
9- Laser and Light devices:
Some laser and light devices may be beneficial for acne.
Dry skin also known as xerosis is a common condition that the skin loses too much water or oil, loses moisture and it may crack and peel. (4)
Extremely dry skin can be a warning sign of dermatitis
The types of dermatitis include but are not limited to:(4)
- Contact dermatitis: results from direct contact with certain substances called allergens.
Common allergens include rubber, costume jewelry, perfume, cosmetics, hair dyes, and poison ivy.
- Neurodermatitis: occurs because of repeated scratching.
Typically occurs on the scalp, neck, wrist, upper forearm, and ankle
- Perioral/Periorificial dermatitis usually affects the area around the mouth, but can also affect the areas around the nose, cheeks, and eyes.
- Seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff, cradle cap): often found on oily areas of the body, such as the face, upper chest, back, and scalp.
- Atopic dermatitis (eczema): occurs in the folds of the elbow, backs of the knees, or the front of the neck.
It tends to flare periodically and then subside for a time, even up to several years.
How to manage dermatitis and feel better:(5)
- Moisturize your skin.
- Use anti-inflammation and anti-itch products. Hydrocortisone cream might temporarily relieve your symptoms. Oral antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine, may help reduce itching. These types of products are available without a prescription.
- Apply a cool wet cloth. This helps soothe your skin.
- Take a comfortably warm bath. Sprinkle your bathwater with baking soda or a finely ground oatmeal that’s made for the bathtub (colloidal oatmeal).
- Use medicated shampoos. For dandruff, use OTC shampoos containing selenium sulfide, zinc pyrithione, coal tar, or ketoconazole.
- Avoid rubbing and scratching. Cover the itchy area with a dressing if you can’t keep from scratching it. Trim your nails and wear gloves at night.
- Choose mild laundry detergent. Because your clothes, sheets, and towels touch your skin, choose mild, unscented laundry products.
- Avoid known irritants or allergens. Try to identify and remove allergens and other factors in your environment that irritate your skin. Avoid rough and scratchy clothing.
- Manage your stress. Emotional stressors can cause some types of dermatitis to flare. Consider trying stress management techniques such as relaxation or biofeedback.
Sunburn is red, painful skin that feels hot to the touch. It usually appears within a few hours after too much exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from sunshine or artificial sources.(6)
Sunburn signs and symptoms can include:(6)
- Changes in skin tone, such as pinkness or redness
- Skin that feels warm or hot to the touch
- Pain and tenderness
- Small fluid-filled blisters, which may break
- Headache, fever, nausea, and fatigue, if the sunburn is severe
- Eyes that feel painful or gritty
- Ultraviolet radiation increases the risk of three types of skin cancer: melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma.
- Extreme sunburns can be painful to the point of debilitation and may require hospital care. (7)
|Ultraviolet A (UVA)||Ultraviolet B (UVB)|
Risk factors for sunburn include:(6)
- Having light skin, blue eyes, and red or blond hair
- Living or vacationing somewhere sunny, warm, or at a high altitude
- Working outdoors
- Swimming or spraying your skin with water, as wet skin tends to burn more than does dry skin
- Mixing outdoor recreation and drinking alcohol
- Regularly exposing unprotected skin to UV light from sunlight or artificial sources, such as tanning beds
- Taking photosensitizing medications such as certain antibiotics (Tetracyclines, Fluoroquinolones, and Sulfonamides), certain antifungals, NSAIDs, diuretics, retinoid, sulfonylureas, statins, and neuroleptic drugs.
Sun exposure and repeated sunburns accelerate the skin’s aging process, making you look older than you are. Skin changes caused by UV light are called photoaging. The results of photoaging include:(6)
- Weakening of connective tissues, which reduces the skin’s strength and elasticity
- Deep wrinkles
- Dry, rough skin
- Fine red veins on your cheeks, nose, and ears
- Freckles, mostly on your face and shoulders
- Dark or discolored spots (macules) on your face, back of hands, arms, chest, and upper back — also called solar lentigines (len-TIJ-ih-neze)
How to treat sunburn? (8)
- Take frequent cool baths or showers to help relieve the pain. As soon as you get out of the bathtub or shower, gently pat yourself dry, but leave a little water on your skin. Then, apply a moisturizer to help trap the water in your skin. This can help ease the dryness.
- Use a moisturizer that contains aloe vera or soy to help soothe sunburned skin. If a particular area feels especially uncomfortable, you may want to apply a hydrocortisone cream that you can buy without a prescription. Do not treat sunburn with “-caine” products (such as benzocaine), as these may irritate the skin or cause an allergic reaction.
You can use Bioderma Cicabio Cream, Beesline After Sun Repairing Milk
You can buy Bioderma Cicabio Cream online from:
You can buy Beesline After Sun Repairing Milk online from:
- Consider taking aspirin or ibuprofen to help reduce any swelling, redness, and discomfort.
- Drink extra water. A sunburn draws fluid to the skin’s surface and away from the rest of the body. Drinking extra water when you are sunburned helps prevent dehydration.
- If your skin blisters, allow the blisters to heal. Blistering skin means you have a second-degree sunburn. You should not pop the blisters, as blisters form to help your skin heal and protect you from infection.
- Take extra care to protect sunburned skin while it heals. Wear clothing that covers your skin when outdoors. Tightly woven fabrics work best. When you hold the fabric up to bright light, you shouldn’t see any light coming through.
- Avoid sun exposure between 10 am and 4 pm.
- Avoid sun tanning and tanning beds.
- Use sunscreen frequently (SPF of 30 or greater and board-spectrum protection against UVA and UVB rays)
- Wear sunglasses (with UVA and UVB protection) when outdoors
- Be aware of photosensitizing medications.
- Sunscreen (also known as sunblock, sun cream, or sun lotion) is a lotion, spray, gel, or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect against sunburn. (9)
- Sunblock (physical sunscreen) typically refers to opaque sunscreen that is effective at blocking both UVA and UVB rays and uses a heavy carrier oil to resist being washed off.(9)
- Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide are two of the important ingredients in sunblock.
- Sunscreen (chemical sunscreen) is more popular than sunblock (due to sunblock having a greasy appearance).
Physical sunscreen (sunblock):(10)
- It acts as a physical barrier to reflect and scatter about 99% of light but is less cosmetically accepted than chemical sunscreen because it has a greasy appearance.
- There is no chemical reaction, and no free radicals are produced.
- Examples: Titanium Dioxide, Red Petrolatum, and Zinc Oxide.
Chemical sunscreen (sunscreen):(10)
- Protect the skin by absorbing light particles.
- When this energy is absorbed, the molecules of the sunscreen are chemically reacting and destroyed it.
- The chemical reaction generates free radicals; secondary free radicals may accelerate the skin aging process after a long period of application → potential for secondary damage.
- Sunscreen contains exceptionally powerful antioxidants to reduce free radical activities and the potential for secondary damage. These antioxidants such as grape extract, vitamin E, green tea, etc.
- Sunscreen is usually applied 20-30 minutes before going outdoors and reapply every 2 hours, after heavy sweating or after being in the water.
Measurements of protection:(11)
- Sun Protection Factor (SPF): the SPF of a sunscreen is a laboratory measure of the effectiveness of sunscreen; the higher the SPF, the more protection a sunscreen offers against UVB.(11)
The SPF scale:(11)SPF 15: protect 93% of UVB raysSPF 30: protect 97% of UVB rays
SPF 50: protect 98% of UVB rays
SPF 100: protect 99% of UVB rays
- Sunscreen spectrum: broad-spectrum sunscreens are designed to protect against both UVB & UVA.
- Substantively: the ability of the sunscreen to adhere to the skin while swimming or perspiring.
- Water resistance: indicate that the formula retains SPF after 40 min of activity in water, sweating, and perspiring.
- Very water resistance: indicate that the formula retains SPF after 80 min of activity in the water, sweating, and perspiring.
How to choose sunscreen according to your skin type?
If you have oily, acne-prone skin, specifical sunscreen for oily skin is recommended as it will be water-based instead of oil-based thus a sunscreen gel is recommended for oily skin like La Roche Posay Anthelios Shaka Fluid SPF-50+
You can buy La Roche Posay Anthelios Shaka Fluid SPF-50+ online from:
If you have dry skin, look for sunscreens that have hydrating ingredients such as Bioderma Photoderm Max SPF-100 Cream
You can buy Bioderma Photoderm Max SPF-100 Cream online from:
The best sunscreen for kids should be at least 50, but you should aim for 70+. Choose sunscreens specifically made for kids as adult sunscreens can irritate their gentle skin. Babies need even stronger sun protection, as their skin is thinner and more sensitive like Bioderma Photoderm Kid SPF50+ Sun Foam for Delicate Skin
You can buy Bioderma Photoderm Kid SPF50+ Sun Foam for Delicate Skin online from:
Hyperpigmentation isn’t necessarily a condition but a term that describes skin that appears darker. It can:(12)
- occur in small patches
- cover large areas
- affect the entire body
While increased pigmentation usually isn’t harmful, it can be a symptom of another medical condition.
Types of hyperpigmentation(12)
There are several types of hyperpigmentation, the common ones being melasma, sunspots, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.
- Melasma: is believed to be caused by hormonal changes and may develop during pregnancy. Areas of hyperpigmentation can appear on any area of the body, but they appear most commonly on the stomach and face.
- Sunspots: Also called liver spots or solar lentigines, sunspots are common. They’re related to excess sun exposure over time. Generally, they appear as spots on areas exposed to the sun, like the hands and face.
- Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. This is a result of injury or inflammation of the skin. A common cause of this type is acne.
How to treat?(13)
- A physical blocking sunscreen, preferably with zinc oxide as the main active ingredient
- At least an SPF of 30 to 50
- Broad spectrum coverage
Many people use topical treatments to treat hyperpigmentation. Topical treatments will include ingredients that can lighten the skin, such as:
- Azelaic acid
- Cysteamine cream
- Vitamin C
- Kojic acid
- Retinoids, such as tretinoin
- Glycolic acid peels
- N-acetyl glucosamine
- Laser therapy: pulsed CO2 laser & Q-switched alexandrite laser
- Mechanical peeling: microdermabrasion & dermabrasion
- Chemical peels: Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), salicylic acid, alpha hydroxy acid (AHA), and phenol.
5-Skin aging and wrinkles
- Skin aging is influenced by many factors including ultraviolet radiation, excess alcohol consumption, tobacco abuse, and environmental pollution. (14)
- Within the skin, aging is associated with a loss of fibrous tissue, a slower rate of cellular renewal, and a reduced vascular and glandular network.(14)
- Wrinkles, a natural part of aging, are most prominent on sun-exposed skin, such as the face, neck, hands, and forearms due to underlying alterations in the dermal collagen and elastic fibers.(14)
- As you get older, your skin naturally becomes less elastic and more fragile. Decreased production of natural oils dries your skin and makes it appear more wrinkled.
- Fat in the deeper layers of your skin diminishes. This causes loose, saggy skin and more-pronounced lines and crevices.
- Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. Ultraviolet radiation, which speeds up the natural aging process, is the primary cause of early wrinkling. Exposure to UV light breaks down your skin’s connective tissue — collagen and elastin fibers, which lie in the deeper layer of skin (dermis).
Without supportive connective tissue, your skin loses strength and flexibility. The skin then begins to sag and wrinkle prematurely.
- Smoking can accelerate the normal aging process of your skin, contributing to wrinkles. This may be due to smoking’s effect on collagen.
- Repeated facial expressions.Facial movements and expressions, such as squinting or smiling, lead to fine lines and wrinkles. Each time you use a facial muscle, a groove forms beneath the surface of the skin. And as skin ages, it loses its flexibility and is no longer able to spring back in place. These grooves then become permanent features on your face.
- Use sunscreen with dual protection against UVA & UVB
- Use a light daily moisturizer and intensive nighttime moisturizer
- Essential fatty acid intake: fish oil rich in omega 3 oils (EPA &DHA) inhibit the production of inflammatory metabolites.
*Supplemental nutrients to support skin health:(16)
|Curcumin||400-800 mg daily|
|Trans-Resveratrol||250-500 mg daily|
|Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)||100-200 mg daily||You can order it from:|
|Selenium||200-400 mg daily||You can order it from:|
|Vitamin E||400 IU daily||You can order it from:|
|Vitamin A||5000 IU daily|
|Fish oil||1400 mg EPA & 1000 mg DHA daily||You can order it from:|
|Lycopene||15 mg daily|
|Vitamin D||5000-10000 IU daily||You can order it from:|
|Green tea, standardized extract||725-1450 mg daily|
|Grape extract||150 mg daily|
|Blend of dark berry extracts||700-1400 mg daily|
- Anti-aging cosmetics: anti-aging cosmetic preparations include conventional moisturizing with a specific anti-aging ingredient such as (15)
- Retinol: reduce fine lines and pores
- Epidermal growth factor: stimulate cell renewal and collagen production
- Hyaluronic acid: promote collagen synthesis, repair, and hydration
- Alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) and beta hydroxy acid or other chemical peels: enhance the exfoliation of the epidermis and exposes new skin cells and can help improve the appearance
- Vitamin C: antioxidants and it is also thought to help the healing process.
You can order vitamin C online from:
- Chemical peeling: such as AHA, TCA, salicylic acid, and phenol
- Mechanical peeling: dermabrasion & microdermabrasion
- Augmentation therapy by filler injection: by injection of soft tissue filler into the skin to help fill in facial wrinkles, restoring a smoother appearance
Fillers such as Hyaluronic acid, collagen, calcium hydroxylapatite, polycaprolactone, polymethyl methacrylate, and polylactic acid.
- Botulinum toxin type A (Botox®) injection therapy:(17)
it blocks the chemical signals that cause muscles to contract. Botox is injected into the muscles whose contractions cause wrinkles, such as between the eyebrows (frown lines) and the lines that radiate from the corner of the eyes (crow’s feet). The effects of Botox usually last for three to four months. When the Botox wears off, the muscles again become active, and the wrinkles will begin to reform. The treatment would then be repeated. If you choose not to repeat the injections, your wrinkles will return to no worse than they were initially. There might be temporary redness, bruising, or stinging around the Botox injection sites. In extremely rare cases, there might be a slight lid droop for several days after the injection, but all reported side effects have been temporary.
- Skin tightening by laser or energy-based devices: removes thin layers of skin and stimulates collagen production.
- Skin lifting by threads or surgical operations (Facelift surgery): the face-lift procedure involves removing excess skin and fat in the lower face and neck and tightening the underlying muscle and connective tissue.
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- Skin Care Routine for Oily Skin: Key Steps for Healthy Skin [Internet]. [cited 2022 May 29]. Available from: https://www.healthline.com/health/skin-care-routine-for-oily-skin-2#cleanse
- Sunscreen and Prevention of Skin Aging. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2013 Jun 4;158(11):I.
- Dry skin – Diagnosis and treatment – Mayo Clinic [Internet]. [cited 2022 May 29]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dry-skin/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353891
- The Ultimate Skin Care Routine and Best Products for Dry Skin [Internet]. [cited 2022 May 29]. Available from: https://www.healthline.com/health/beauty-skin-care/skin-care-routine-for-dry-skin#all-natural
- Kim S, Ly BK, Ha JH, Carson KA, Hawkins S, Kang S, et al. A consistent skin care regimen leads to objective and subjective improvements in dry human skin: investigator-blinded randomized clinical trial. Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 2022;33(1):300–5.
- The Ultimate Skin Care Routine for Combination Skin [Internet]. [cited 2022 May 29]. Available from: https://www.healthline.com/health/beauty-skin-care/skin-care-routine-for-combination-skin#combination-skin-care-routine
- Zaenglein AL, Pathy AL, Schlosser BJ, Alikhan A, Baldwin HE, Berson DS, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 May 1;74(23):945-973.e33.
- Acne [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 17]. Available from: https://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/acne/acne-causes
- Acne: Treatment, Types, Causes & Prevention [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 17]. Available from: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/12233-acne
- Dermatitis: Types, Treatments, Causes & Symptoms [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 17]. Available from: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/4089-dermatitis
- Dermatitis – Diagnosis and treatment – Mayo Clinic [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 17]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dermatitis-eczema/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20352386
- Sunburn – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 17]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sunburn/symptoms-causes/syc-20355922
- UV Radiation – The Skin Cancer Foundation [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 17]. Available from: https://www.skincancer.org/risk-factors/uv-radiation/
- How to treat sunburn [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 17]. Available from: https://www.aad.org/public/everyday-care/injured-skin/burns/treat-sunburn
- Sunscreen vs. Sunblock: What’s the Difference, and Which One Is Better? [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 17]. Available from: https://www.health.com/beauty/skincare/sunscreen-vs-sunblock
- The difference between physical and chemical sunscreen [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 17]. Available from: https://www.piedmont.org/living-better/the-difference-between-physical-and-chemical-sunscreen
- Sun Protection Factor (SPF) | FDA [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 17]. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/about-fda/center-drug-evaluation-and-research-cder/sun-protection-factor-spf
- Schalka S. New data on hyperpigmentation disorders. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 2017 Sep 1;31:18–21.
- Hyperpigmentation: Types, treatment, and causes [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 17]. Available from: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323808
- Krutmann J, Bouloc A, Sore G, Bernard BA, Passeron T. The skin aging exposome. Journal of Dermatological Science. 2017 Mar 1;85(21):152–61.
- Ganceviciene R, Liakou AI, Theodoridis A, Makrantonaki E, Zouboulis CC. Skin anti-aging strategies. Dermatoendocrinol [Internet]. 2012 Jul 7 [cited 2022 Jun 17];4(21):308. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC3583892/
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- Wrinkles and Aging Skin [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 17]. Available from: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/10984-wrinkles